Introduction To Sociology Chapter 1
Introduction To Sociology Chapter 1
Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
Which sociologist introduced the concept of the sociological imagination C. Wright Mills
Emile Durkheim's research suggested that there seemed to be higher rates of suicide in times of peace than in times of war and revolution
Within sociology, a/an __________ is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior. theory
True or False: Sociology is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. false, Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. The sociological imagination is an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society.
True or False: Social science is the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change. True, Social science is the study of the social features of humans and the ways in which they interact and change. The social sciences include sociology, anthropology, economics, history, psychology, and political science.
In this sociologist's hierarchy of sciences, sociology was the "queen" and its practitioners "scientist-priests." Auguste Comte
Which sociologist introduced the concept of anomie to the discipline? Emile Durkheim
Anomie refers to the loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
Weber taught his students that they should employ what in their intellectual work? Verstehen
Which sociologist below tried to establish a juvenile court system? Jane Adams
Which sociologist below made a major contribution to society through his in-depth studies of urban life, both black and white? WEB DuBois
According to the text, Herbert Spencer applied the concept of evolution of the species to societies
The term __________ refers to a construct or model for evaluating specific cases. Ideal type
True or False: Émile Durkheim developed a highly original theory about the relationship between homicide and social factors. False, Émile Durkheim developed a highly original theory about the relationship between suicide and social factors. He then offered a scientific explanation for the causes of suicide.
True or False: Scholars were able to learn of Auguste Comte's works largely through translations by the English sociologist Ida Wells-Barnett. False, scholars were able to learn of Auguste Comte's works largely through translations by the English sociologist Harriet Martineau. Martineau was a path-breaker as a sociologist in her own right. She offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices in both Britain and the United States.
True or False:Sociology owes credit to Max Weber for a key conceptual tool called "anomie." False, Weber introduced the key conceptual tool called the "ideal type." An ideal type is a construct, a made-up model that serves as a measuring rod against which actual cases can be evaluated. Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie.
True or False: In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between classes that clash in pursuit of their own class interests. True, In Karl Marx's analysis, society was fundamentally divided between classes which clash in pursuit of their own class interests. When he examined the industrial societies of his time, he saw the factory as the center of conflict between the exploited and the exploiters.
True or False: Charles Horton Cooley's primary interest was the consequences of work in modern societies. False, Cooley preferred to use the sociological perspective to look first at smaller units—intimate, face-to-face groups. His work increased our understanding of groups of a relatively small size. It was Émile Durkheim who was interested in the consequences of work in modern societies.
True or False: Sociologist Robert Merton made an important contribution to the discipline of sociology by arguing that the working class needed to overthrow the existing class system. False, Sociologist Robert Merton made an important contribution to the discipline of sociology by successfully combining theory and research. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that the working class needed to overthrow the existing class system.
Which sociological perspective holds that if an aspect of social life does not contribute to a society's stability or survival it will not be passed on from one generation to the next? Functionalist perspective
One function that a university serves is to delay people's entry into the job market. This is an example of what kind of function? Latent function
Which sociological perspective assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between competing groups? Conflict
Which perspective has begun to study a new form of commuter behavior called "slugging"? Interactionist perspective
Which theoretical perspective would examine sports on the micro level by focusing on how day-to-day social behavior is shaped by the distinctive norms, values, and demands of the world of sports? Interactionist perspective
Thinking of society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival is a reflection of which theoretical perspective? Functionalist
__________ functions of institutions are open, stated, and conscious. Manifest
The __________ perspective generalizes about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole. Interactionist
In the nineteenth century, before the term feminist perspective could even be coined, the ideas behind this major theoretical approach appeared in the writings of Ida Wells- Barnett
Erving Goffman's dramaturgical approach, which postulates that people present certain aspects of their personalities while obscuring other qualities, is derivative of what major theoretical perspective? interactionist
__________ and Friedrich Engels prepared a platform called The Communist Manifesto, in which they argued that the masses of people who have no resources other than their labor (the proletariat) should unite to fight for the overthrow of capitalist societies. Karl Marx
According to the box Research Today: Looking at Sports from Four Theoretical Perspectives, which of the major theoretical perspectives views sports as an "opiate" that encourages people to seek a temporary fix rather than focus on personal problems? Conflict
Latent functions are unconscious and/or unintended
True or False: The functionalist perspective emphasizes the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. True, The functionalist perspective does emphasize the way in which parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. This perspective views society as a living organism in which each part of the organism contributes to its survival.
The term "latent function" refers to an element or process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability. False: The term "dysfunction" refers to an element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability. Latent functions are unconscious or unintended functions.
True or False: Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position. True, Conflict theorists are interested in how society's institutions may help to maintain the privileges of some groups and keep others in a subservient position. Their emphasis on social change and the redistribution of resources makes conflict theorists more "radical" and "activist" than functionalists.
Charles Horton Cooley is widely regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective False, George Herbert Mead is widely regarded as the founder of the interactionist perspective. His sociological analysis, like that of Cooley, often focused on human interactions in one-to-one situations and small groups.
True or False:Ida Wells-Barnett explored what it meant to be female and Black living in the United States. True, Ida Wells-Barnett did explore what it meant to be female and Black living in the United States. Her work established her as one of the earliest feminist theorists.
__________ sociology is sociological inquiry that seeks only a deeper knowledge of the fundamental human phenomena. Basic
True or false: Applied sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with the special intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions. False, Clinical sociology is the use of the discipline of sociology with the special intent of altering social relationships or restructuring social institution
True or False:Basic sociology is also known as applied sociology. False, Basic sociology is also known as pure sociology