Topic Influenza Introduction: Analysis of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) to include demographic break down that includes age, gender, rac

  • Topic Influenza
  • Introduction:  Analysis of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) to include demographic break down that includes age, gender, race, or other at-risk indicators (da ta per demographics should include mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence).
  • Determinants of Health:  Define, identify and synthesize the determinants of health as related to the development of the infection.   Utilize HP2020.
  • Epidemiological Triad:  Identify and describe all elements of the epidemiological triad: Host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Utilize the demographic break down to fur ther describe the triad.
  • Role of the NP:  Succinctly define the role of the nurse practitioner according to a national nurse practitioner organization ( National Board of Nursing or AANP, for example) and synthesize the role to the management of infectious diseases (surveillance, primary/secondary/tertiary interventions, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, and follow-up). This includes the integration of a model of practice which supports the implementation of an evidence-based practice.  Refer to your course textbook for models of practice examples.
  • Length: 4 pages; 3 References 

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Topic: Influenza


Influenza, commonly known as flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. The disease is widespread and occurs annually, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this paper, we will analyze the communicable disease, including its causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and a demographic breakdown that includes age, gender, race, or other at-risk factors.

Determinants of Health:

Determinants of health can be defined as factors that affect health, either positively or negatively. These factors can be socioeconomic or environmental, including access to healthcare, education, housing, employment, and income. In the case of influenza, determinants of health are significant because a lack of access to healthcare, education, and other resources can lead to a higher incidence and prevalence of the disease. The Healthy People 2020 initiative stresses the importance of addressing these determinants to improve overall health outcomes among communities.

Epidemiological Triad:

The epidemiological triad consists of three essential factors that contribute to the development of an infectious disease: host factors, agent factors, and environmental factors.

Host factors: These include genetic makeup, age, gender, immune status, and behavior. Influenza affects people of all ages, but children, older adults, pregnant women, and those with chronic medical conditions are more susceptible to severe complications.

Agent factors: Influenza viruses are the primary agent of the disease. There are several types and subtypes of influenza viruses, and they are constantly evolving, which requires an annual vaccine.

Environmental factors: Environmental factors can include climate, air quality, water quality, and the social and cultural environment. Influenza can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, which are more easily spread in closed spaces and crowded areas.

Role of the NP:

The role of the nurse practitioner is to provide comprehensive healthcare services, including disease prevention, health promotion, and management of acute and chronic illnesses. According to the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP), NPs are licensed healthcare providers who can diagnose and prescribe medications, order diagnostic tests and interpret test results, and provide patient education and counseling.

The NP’s role in managing infectious diseases includes surveillance, primary/secondary/tertiary interventions, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, and follow-up. They collect and analyze data to identify patterns and outbreaks, develop treatment plans that include antiviral medication, and provide education to patients and their families on disease prevention and management. NPs also advocate for evidence-based practices and implement models of practice to improve patient outcomes.


Influenza is a significant public health concern, affecting individuals of all ages, genders, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Determinants of health, such as access to care and resources, play a critical role in the prevalence and incidence of this disease. Understanding the epidemiological triad and the role of the nurse practitioner is essential to preventing and managing the spread of influenza within communities.

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