1. What does the central nervous system (CNS) comprise? The peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
2. What are some possible causes of disease of the nervous system?
3. How is the nervous system evaluated during a diagnostic examination?
4. What are the three vascular disorders that may result in a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
5. How does a transient ischemic attack (TIA) differ from a CVA?
6. What are some of the likely causes of epidural and subdural hematomas? Which condition is more likely to have a delayed onset of symptoms?
7. Which condition is more serious, a cerebral concussion or cerebral contusion? Why?
8. What is the relationship between the location of a spinal cord injury and the signs and symptoms?
9. Which diagnostic findings may indicate a degeneration or rupture of an intervertebral disk?
10. How does spinal stenosis contribute to sciatic pain?
11. Are headaches always a symptom of an underlying disease? What are some causative factors of cephalalgia?
12. What are the classic signs and symptoms of a migraine?
13. What are the different types of epileptic seizures? What are the first aid guidelines?
14. What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of (a) Parkinson disease, (b) Huntington chorea, and (c) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
15. What are suggested causes of and treatment interventions for transient global amnesia?
16. What are some causative factors of peripheral neuritis?
17. How does a patient with trigeminal neuralgia typically describe the pain?
18. What is the clinical appearance of a person with Bell palsy?
19. What is the diagnostic significance of nuchal rigidity in the presence of headache and photophobia?
20. What are the possible etiologic agents of encephalitis?
21. What is the pathologic progression of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
22. How do infectious organisms reach the brain? How is a brain abscess treated?
23. What is post-polio syndrome?
24. How are intracranial tumors classified, and what determines the symptomatology?
Expert Solution Preview
As a medical professor, it is crucial to educate medical college students about the complexities of the nervous system and the various diseases and disorders associated with it. In this assignment, students will explore central and peripheral nervous systems, diagnostic examinations, cerebrovascular accidents, concussions and contusions, spinal injuries, headaches, epilepsy, neurological disorders, and intracranial tumors.
1. The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all neural networks and fibers outside the CNS.
2. Some possible causes of diseases of the nervous system are infections, genetic mutations, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic injuries, and exposure to toxins or chemicals.
3. The nervous system is evaluated during a diagnostic examination using techniques such as CT scans, MRIs, electroencephalograms, nerve conduction velocity tests, and lumbar punctures.
4. The three vascular disorders that may result in a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) are thrombosis, embolism, and hemorrhage.
5. A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a temporary blockage of blood flow to the brain that results in brief neurological symptoms, while a CVA is a permanent blockage of blood flow to the brain resulting in long-lasting damage.
6. Epidural and subdural hematomas are typically caused by head injuries. Subdural hematomas are more likely to have a delayed onset of symptoms. Likely causes include falls, car accidents, and physical assaults.
7. A cerebral contusion is more serious than a cerebral concussion as it involves bruising of the brain tissue, increasing the risk of neurological damage.
8. The location of a spinal cord injury determines the signs and symptoms. Injuries to the cervical region can cause paralysis of the arms and legs, while injuries to the lower spine can cause paralysis below the waist.
9. Diagnostic findings that may indicate a degeneration or rupture of an intervertebral disk include herniation or bulging of the disk, nerve impingement, and spinal stenosis.
10. Spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the spinal canal, can cause pressure on the sciatic nerve, leading to sciatic pain.
11. Headaches are not always a symptom of an underlying disease. Cephalalgia can be caused by tension, sinus congestion, migraines, or neuralgia.
12. The classic signs and symptoms of a migraine are a throbbing, unilateral headache, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
13. The different types of epileptic seizures include absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and myoclonic seizures. First aid guidelines include keeping the person safe and comfortable, loosening tight clothing, and not restraining the person.
14. The characteristic signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include tremors, stiffness, bradykinesia (slow movement), and postural instability. Huntington’s chorea is characterized by involuntary movements and cognitive decline. ALS is characterized by muscle weakness, awkward movements, and difficulty speaking and breathing.
15. Transient global amnesia is believed to be caused by a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain. Treatment interventions include reassurance and avoiding stressful situations.
16. Some causative factors of peripheral neuritis include infections, toxins, nutritional deficiencies, or autoimmune disorders.
17. A patient with trigeminal neuralgia typically describes the pain as a sudden, severe, electric shock-like sensation in one side of the face.
18. A person with Bell’s palsy has a drooping of one side of the face and difficulty with facial expressions, blinking, and producing tears.
19. Nuchal rigidity in the presence of headache and photophobia may indicate meningitis, a serious inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
20. Possible etiologic agents of encephalitis include viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Treatment depends on the specific agent causing the infection.
21. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by motor weakness and sensory loss. The pathologic progression involves inflammation and damage to the peripheral nerves.
22. Infectious organisms can reach the brain through the bloodstream, direct invasion, or spread from neighboring tissues. Brain abscesses are typically treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage.
23. Post-polio syndrome is characterized by new weakness, fatigue, and pain in people who had previously recovered from polio infection.
24. Intracranial tumors are classified based on their location, origin, and degree of malignancy. The symptomatology depends on the location and size of the tumor and can include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, or motor weakness.